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MS 22, f. 166v

Eagles teaching an eaglet to look at the sun. CCCC MS 22, f. 166v

Summer has finally properly arrived in England, and the sun has made a stronger-than-usual appearance in Cambridge. While we humans need to dust off our sunglasses, the eagle, as described by Isidore of Seville in the early 7th century, is capable of staring directly into the sun.

In fact, the eagle tests its young by holding them up to the sun, and if they cannot look right at it, they are cast out of the nest. This brought about the medieval allegorical reading of the eagle’s ability to look directly into the sun as analogous to Christ’s ability to see the full glory of God. Only the most worthy souls can be lifted up by angels and perceive the whole power of God.

This illustration is from CCCC MS 22, a collection of Isidore of Seville’s works, which includes one of the oldest extant copies of an illustrated bestiary made in England. It probably dates from c. 1150-70, and may have been produced in the North of England.

July imageThe two-volume Chronica Maiora of Matthew Paris (c.1190-1259), monk of St Albans, is one of the major records of history at the time of the Crusades. It is the author’s own copy, with illustrations in his own hand. The picture here shows the disastrous Battle of Hattin in Palestine, when Saladin defeated the crusaders’ armies and captured the True Cross. The battle took place of 4 July 1187. MS 26, folio 140r.

June Image (stonehenge)

MS 194, f. 57r

 

 

The Scala Mundi, or ‘Ladder of the World’, is a diagrammatical chronicle of universal history from the Creation to the early fourteenth century, when the manuscript was made. It includes the earliest known depiction of Stonehenge, described as having been built by Merlin. Stonehenge is still used annually to mark the summer solstice, which falls around 20-22 June.

 

For several years, a pair of mallard ducks have nested in the New Court of Corpus, probably based on its academic credentials and excellent foliage. The annual sight of the Corpus ducklings and their subsequent herding to the Cam occurred yesterday to great fanfare, as the entire College stopped what they were doing to watch.

Ducks real

Corpus ducklings

 

The medieval theory of the duck was that it was named ans in Latin after its constancy (assiduitate) in swimming (natandi). If you look closely, this is described in the first sentence of the section on ducks in the Peterborough bestiary (MS 53, 14th c.), starting with the historiated letter ‘A’:

Ducks

CCCC MS 53, f. 203v

 

However, the name likely came from an Indo-European root word which was also visible in the Old English word for duck : enid. The Corpus Glossary (MS 144, early 9th c.) shows the translation of Latin aneta for Old English enid:

Enid

CCCC MS 144, f. 8v

The modern English word for duck came from the original Anglo-Saxon verb, dúcan, meaning to dive or duck in the modern sense. The word was already in use for the bird by the late Anglo-Saxon era, but continued in tandem with enid or ende through the 15th c.

May Image (MS 183, f. 2r)In May 934, King Æthelstan, first king of all England 927-39, took an army from southern England up to fight the Scots. On the journey northwards he stayed with the exiled community from Lindisfarne, then at Chester-le-Street between Durham and Newcastle. He presented them with this manuscript, the life of their patron saint, Saint Cuthbert, written by Bede (672-735). MS 183, folio 2r.

For the portion of the world to whom April is tax season, it may seem abundantly clear that taxation requires, at the very least, some type of codified system of obligations. At the Parker Library, home to some of the earliest written English laws, we can dig up illustrative examples of early medieval styles of taxation.

The famous Parker Chronicle contains not only the earliest copy of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, but also important early texts of the laws of the kings Ine and Alfred of Wessex, and beginning in the 8th century, Anglo-Saxon laws mention some of the responsibilities that a landowner would owe to his lord or could expect to collect from his tenants.

In these cases, the oft-overlapping relationship between ‘rent’ and ‘tax’ in a feudal society is evident in the way the Old English term gafol is used variably to describe legal requirements that would fall into either camp in modern usage. The term gafolgelden, used in these texts to describe one who is part of the exchange system, is best translated as ‘taxpayer’. There were several types of gafol, including blanket-rent (a tax of cloth), barley-rent (a tax of grain) and food-rent (feorm). For example, in Ine’s (688-726) laws for Wessex, it is written that: ‘For every labourer a man has he shall always pay six weys [of barley] as barley-rent [gafol],’ and ‘The blanket held as rent [gafol] from each household shall be worth sixpence’.

MS 53, f. 6r

Man beating an oak tree for acorns to fatten up his pig- from the November calendar page of the Peterborough Psalter. MS 53, p. 6

A hide was a measurement of land in Anglo-Saxon England that was first used to indicate the amount of a land to support one household- not necessarily any specific acreage. In the laws of Ine, the food-rent (feorm) for 10 hides was  ’10 vats of honey, 300 loaves, 12 ambers of Welsh ale, 30 ambers of clear ale, 2 full-grown cows or 10 wethers, 10 geese, 20 hens, 10 cheeses, a full amber of butter, 5 salmon, 20 pounds of fodder, and 100 eels’. Due to the agrarian nature of the exchange, it made sense for it to be made after the harvest, not, as in many countries today, the lean early spring. Typically, Martinmas (November 11) was the expected deadline.

Ine also created a ‘tax’ on wergeld, the fees which would be paid to a man’s family by his slayer, or to the man himself if he were to be maimed (on a sliding scale commensurate with the wounds). Manslaughter was a crime that could generally be rectified with a fee. However, a lord would also be part of any casualty-based transaction, as the law stated that ‘When a wergeld of 200 shillings has to be paid, a compensation of 30 shillings shall be paid to the man’s lord; when a wergeld of 600 shillings has to be paid, the compensation shall be 80 shillings; when a wergeld of 1200 shillings has the be paid, the compensation shall be 120 shillings’.

MS 173, f. 52r

Ine’s laws discussing both the ‘tax’ on wergeld and the food-rent for a property of 10 hides. MS 173, f. 52r

MS 419, p.95

The beginning of ‘Sermo Lupi ad Anglos’ in MS 419, p. 95

Later in the Anglo-Saxon period, taxes were raised to pay off Scandinavian invaders, sent in huge payments which eventually became known as Danegeld. Wulfstan, archbishop of York (d. 1023), railed against this practice and its attendant excessive taxes (ungylda) in his Sermo lupi ad Anglos, which is witnessed in CCCC MSS 419 and 201, both from the 11th century.

Another requirement of the medieval landholder, both pre and post-Norman conquest, was to pay tithes to the church. Tithes would be incurred if he resided on church property, held cultivated land on church property, or was otherwise at all associated with a particular diocese. This relationship was codified in Canon Law.

MS 10, f. 181r

Paying tithes to two dioceses. MS 10, f. 181r

CCCC MS 10 is an illuminated 12th century manuscript which contains various causae or legal cases, and how they were ruled based on canon law. In the miniature shown here, The two men in the centre, holding a lamb and a sheaf, have been driven from their old diocese and moved to another, but still cultivate their old lands. They are now required to pay tithes to both dioceses, as depicted by the two groups of monks. By the inclusion of this causae in the manuscript, it’s clear that this was an important detail which warranted further explanation.

So, while it may have only become necessary to register your charitable donations for tax purposes in the modern era, it comes from a long and storied tradition of being confused about the finer points of taxation.

 

 

All translations of Anglo-Saxon laws are from The Laws of the Earliest English Kings, edited and Translated by F.L. Attenborough (Cambridge, 1922).

All images are reproduced with permission of the Master and Fellows of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.

April image

©The Master and Fellows of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge

Turgotus and Francio, refugees from Troy, are the mythological founders of the kingdom of France. This is an illustrated genealogy of the ancient kings of France from the foundation to the fourteenth century, attributed to the Dominican Bernard Gui (d.1331). The manuscript is dated 8 April 1330 (folio 48r). MS 45, folio 33v.

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